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Maria White
Maria White


PPPs are calculated by the ICP based on the prices of items within a common basket of goods and services and expenditure shares, used as expenditure weights, on groups of items in each of the participating economies. These data are benchmarked to a reference year for each comparison cycle. The most recent ICP results are available for the ICP 2017 cycle, with the ongoing cycle benchmarked to 2021.


Comparison or comparing is the act of evaluating two or more things by determining the relevant, comparable characteristics of each thing, and then determining which characteristics of each are similar to the other, which are different, and to what degree. Where characteristics are different, the differences may then be evaluated to determine which thing is best suited for a particular purpose. The description of similarities and differences found between the two things is also called a comparison. Comparison can take many distinct forms, varying by field:

To compare is to bring two or more things together (physically or in contemplation) and to examine them systematically, identifying similarities and differences among them. Comparison has a different meaning within each framework of study. Any exploration of the similarities or differences of two or more units is a comparison. In the most limited sense, it consists of comparing two units isolated from each other.[1]

To compare things, they must have characteristics that are similar enough in relevant ways to merit comparison. If two things are too different to compare in a useful way, an attempt to compare them is colloquially referred to in English as "comparing apples and oranges." Comparison is widely used in society, in science and in the arts.

Comparison is a natural activity, which even animals engage in when deciding, for example, which potential food to eat. Humans similarly have always engaged in comparison when hunting or foraging for food. This behavior carries over into activities like shopping for food, clothes, and other items, choosing which job to apply for or which job to take from multiple offers, or choosing which applicants to hire for employment. In commerce, people often engage in comparison shopping: attempting to get the best deal for a product by comparing the qualities of different available versions of that product and attempting to determine which one maximizes the return on the money spent. In the twenty-first century, as shopping has increasingly been done on the internet, comparison shopping websites have developed to aid shoppers in making such determinations. When consumers and others invest excessive thought into making comparisons, this can result in the problem of analysis paralysis.[2]

Humans also tend to compare themselves and their belongings with others, an activity also observed in some animals.[3] Children begin developing the ability to compare themselves to others in elementary school.[4] In adults, this can lead to unhappiness when a person compares things that they have to things they perceived as superior and unobtainable that others have. Some marketing relies on making such comparisons to entice people to purchase things so they compare more favorably with people who have these things. Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954,[5] centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations. The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. Following the initial theory, research began to focus on social comparison as a way of self-enhancement,[6][7] introducing the concepts of downward and upward comparisons and expanding the motivations of social comparisons.[8]

Human language has evolved to suit this practice by facilitating grammatical comparison, with comparative forms enabling a person to describe a thing as having more or less of a characteristic than another thing, or to describe a thing in a group as having the most or least of that characteristic relative to the group. The grammatical category associated with comparison of adjectives and adverbs is degree of comparison.[9]

Academically, comparison is used between things like economic and political systems. Political scientist and historian Benedict Anderson has cautioned against use of comparisons without considering the relevant framework of things being compared:

It is important to recognise that comparison is not a method or even an academic technique; rather, it is a discursive strategy. There are a few important points to bear in mind when one wants to make a comparison. First of all, one has to decide, in any given work, whether one is mainly after similarities or differences. It is very difficult, for example, to say, let alone prove, that Japan and China or Korea are basically similar or basically different. Either case could be made, depending on one's angle of vision, one's framework, and the conclusions towards which one intends to move.[10]

The primary use of comparison in literature is with the simile, a figure of speech that directly compares two things.[12][13] Similes are a form of metaphor that explicitly use connecting words (such as like, as, so, than, or various verbs such as resemble)[12] though these specific words are not always necessary.[14] While similes are mainly used in forms of poetry that compare the inanimate and the living, there are also terms in which similes are used for humorous purposes of comparison. A number of literary works have commented negatively on the practice of comparison. For example, 15th century English poet John Lydgate wrote "[o]dyous of olde been comparsionis",[15] which was reflected by many later writers, such as William Shakespeare, who included the line in Much Ado About Nothing, "comparisons are odious".[16] Miguel de Cervantes, in a passage in Don Quixote, wrote, "[i]s it possible your pragmatical worship should not know that the comparisons made between wit and wit, courage and courage, beauty and beauty, birth and birth, are always odious and ill taken?"[17]

You should always refer to the actual policy you receive when you purchase coverage to determine the extent of coverage under the policy. The contents of the comparison charts and the sample policy forms in this resource are for informational purposes only and do not replace, alter or amend your coverage. Your actual policy determines your coverage, not the information presented here.

It is based upon several scenarios, or hypothetical risks, that represent the most common variables applied to homeowners, condominium, renters and earthquake insurance premiums quoted today. It provides you with a general cost comparison between insurers and lists a number of insurers offering the coverage selected.

CDI's Role California Insurance Code 12959 requires the commissioner to publish and distribute a comparison of insurance rates report for those lines of insurance which are of most interest to individual purchasers of personal lines of coverage.Annually, the Statistical Analysis Division (SAD) of the California Department of Insurance conducts a survey of premiums of insurers offering homeowners insurance in California. Due to the great diversity of homes, limits, locations and coverages available, it is impossible to publish a comparison for every risk. Therefore, companies are asked to supply their annual premium, based on rates for new business, for specific hypothetical risks located in various Zip codes throughout the state. Zip codes are selected from various regions within the state, based on census home density data. Hypothetical examples are developed in order to provide premiums for a wide variety of risk types.The homeowners premium survey is based upon several scenarios, or hypothetical risks, that represent the most common variables applied to homeowners, condominium, renters and earthquake insurance premiums quoted today.

Note: Be aware that PHP's type juggling is not always obvious when comparing values of different types, particularly comparing ints to bools or ints to strings. It is therefore generally advisable to use === and !== comparisons rather than == and != in most cases.

Multiple values for the same condition are evaluated with OR logic, e.g., Platform = Android OR iOS; Country = Argentina OR Japan. Multiple conditions within the same comparison are evaluated with AND logic, e.g., (Platform = Android OR iOS) AND (Country = Argentina OR Japan).

If a report doesn't support a condition (e.g., the report doesn't include one of the dimensions), then a blank card appears for that comparison. In this case, choose different dimensions for the condition or remove the condition. This is most likely to occur in the Realtime report.

This chart provides a snapshot of paid leave laws that may cover California workers affected by COVID-19. This chart provides a comparison of California laws on paid family leave, paid sick leave, and 2021 COVID-19 Supplemental Paid Sick Leave.

The SIREN team compiles the content of several of the most widely used social health screening tools to facilitate comparisons. The table below summarizes characteristics for each tool, including information about the intended population or setting, total number of questions, social health domains covered, and domain-specific measures used. To view a specific screening tool in its entirety, click on the column heading. To compare questions used across different tools for the same domain (e.g. food security), click on the row heading. Scroll to the right to see the full table.

Intercomparisons between similar generation reanalysis products may yield estimates of the uncertainty of some variables and derived quantities. Additionally, reanalyses can serve as focal point for model intercomparisons.## 041b061a72


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